51 GASPARILLA MAGAZINE JULY/AUG 2016 References 1. Williams, Lindsey, Boldly Onward, Precision Publishing Co., Charlotte Harbor, Fla., 1986: p. 174; A Charlotte Harbor Perspective on de Solo's Landing, The Florida Anthropologist, 1989: p. 288, fig. 5. 2. Herwitz, Stanley, The Natural History of Cayo-Costa Island, New College Environmental Studies Program, Pub. No.14, Sarasota, Fla., 1977. 3. Gibson, Charles D., Boca Grande: A Series of Historical Essays, Great Outdoors Publishing Co., St. Petersburg, Fla., 1982. pp. 205 - 210. 4. Goggin, John M. and Sturtevant, William C., The Calusa: A Stratified, Nonagricultural Society, in Explorations in Cultural Anthropology: Essays in Honor of George Peter Murdoch, edited by Ward H. Goodenough, McGraw Hill, New York, 1964, pp. 179 - 219; Hann, John H., Missions to the Calusa, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Fla., 1991; Marquardt, William H., Politics and Production Among the Calusa of South Florida, in Hunters and Gatherers, Volume 1: History, Evolution and Social Change edited by Tim Ingold, David Riches and James Woodburn, Dept. of Anthropology, University College, Berg Publishers, London 1988, pp. 161 - 188; Marquardt, William H., Culture and Environment in the Domain of the Calusa, University of Florida, Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Monograph No. 1, Gainesville, Fla.; 1992; Widmer, Randolph, The Evolution of the Calusa: A Non-Agricultural Chiefdom on the Southwest Florida Coast, University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 1988. 5. Hann, John H., Mission to the Calusa, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Fla., 1991. 6. Swanton, John R., The Indians of the Southeastern United States, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 137, Washington, D.C., 1946. p. 102. 7. Bullen, Ripley P. and Bullen, Adelaide K., Excavations on the Cape Haze Peninsula, Florida, Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, Number 1, Gainesville, Fla., 1956, pp. 2-3,47- 48,51,53. 8. Luer, George M., A Third Ceremonial Tablet from the Goodnoe Mound, Highlands County, Florida; with Notes on Some Peninsular Tribes and Other Tablets, The Florida Anthropologist 47, 1994: pp. 183-1&4. 9. Edic, Robert K, Fisherfolk of Charlotte Harbor, Florida, University of Florida, Institute of Archaeology and Paleoenvironmental Studies, Gainesville, Fla., 1996. pp. 37-38; Gibson, Boca Grande: A Series of Historical Essays, pp. 15-16, 79. 10. Williams, Boldly Onward, p. 150, Fig. 3. 11. Gibson, Boca Grande: A Series of Historical Essays, p. 28. 12. Austin, Robert J., An Archaeological Site Inventory and Zone Management Plan for Lee County, Florida, report prepared for the Lee County Division of Planning by Piper Archaeological Research, St. Petersburg, Fla., 1987; Edic, Robert F., Archaeological and Historical Survey, Charlotte Harbor Clam Company, report prepared for Charlotte Harbor Clam Company, on file, Florida Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee, 1996. 13. Luer, George M., Allerton, David, Hazeltine, Dan, Hatfield, Ronald and Hood, Darden, Whelk Shell Tool Blanks from Big Mound Key (8CMO), Charlotte County, Florida; With Notes on Certain Whelk Shell Tools, in Shells and Archaeology in Southern Florida, edited by George M. Luer, Florida Anthropological Society Publication No. 12, Tallahassee, 1986, pp. 95-98, 121. 14. Edic, Robert F., Fisherfolk of Charlotte Harbor, Florida, pp. 152- 154. The Indians also used the barrier island's plant resources. Shell cutting-edged tools from various sites show that the Indians were hewing wood, probably from the island's mangrove forests. Wood was valuable as firewood and for making tools. Evacuation and archaeo-botanical analysis could reveal that the Indians here utilizing the island's sea grapes, cabbage palm berries, saw palmetto dates, coco plums, prickly pear cactus fruits and other plant resources. The opened food shells and the shell tools that I have observed at several sites show that these locations were used for extractive purposes such as for shucking shellfish and for cutting wood. The small amounts of clam shells present at both sites may indicate that clams were taken off-site. Summary During the last 20 years I have located a number of archaeological sites on Gasparilla Island. These are small sites, but they deserve further investigation, and should be protected and preserved. I believe that further research of these sites is important because it will help reveal how Charlotte Harbor's original Indian inhabitants utilized Gasparilla Island. These Indians made their living by combining fishing, hunting, gathering and bartering. Their use of Gasparilla Island was undoubtedly complex, and we have a poor understanding of how they used it and other barrier islands in the region. Future archaeological research can show how the Indians used the island's location on the Gulf and its resources, such as fish, shellfish, sea turtles and other animals as well as plants. These were somewhat limited, given the size of the island, and so the island's Indian population would have been small. I suggest that a small number of Indians may have lived on the island more or less year-round. I also suggest that there was some seasonal use of the land by Indians who lived nearby during most of the year, such as to the north and east along the fringe of the Cape Haze Peninsula. Since this article was written several other sites have been located on Gasparilla Island thanks to local informants. They have yet to be investigated or have Florida Site File numbers assigned to them.
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